Replication protein A (RPA), a eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, dynamically interacts with ssDNA in different binding modes and plays essential roles in DNA metabolism such as replication, repair, and recombination. RPA accumulation on ssDNA due to replication stress triggers the DNA damage response (DDR) by activating the ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related (ATR) kinase, which phosphorylates itself and downstream DDR factors, including RPA. We recently reported that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor synaptonuclear signaling and neuronal migration factor (NSMF), a neuronal protein associated with Kallmann syndrome, promotes RPA32 phosphorylation via ATR upon replication stress. However, how NSMF enhances ATR-mediated RPA32 phosphorylation remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSMF colocalizes and physically interacts with RPA at DNA damage sites in vivo and in vitro. Using purified RPA and NSMF in biochemical and single-molecule assays, we find that NSMF selectively displaces RPA in the more weakly bound 8- and 20-nucleotide binding modes from ssDNA, allowing the retention of more stable RPA molecules in the 30-nt binding mode. The 30-nt binding mode of RPA enhances RPA32 phosphorylation by ATR, and phosphorylated RPA becomes stabilized on ssDNA. Our findings provide new mechanistic insight into how NSMF facilitates the role of RPA in the ATR pathway.