Transcription of the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter gene is regulated by multiple tonicity-responsive enhancers spread over 50 kilobase pairs in the 5 '-flanking region
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- Transcription of the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter gene is regulated by multiple tonicity-responsive enhancers spread over 50 kilobase pairs in the 5 '-flanking region
- Rim, JS; Atta, MG; Dahl, SC; Berry, GT; Handler, JS; Kwon, H. Moo
- Issue Date
- AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC
- JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, v.273, no.32, pp.20615 - 20621
- he sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter is a plasma membrane protein responsible for concentrative cellular accumulation of myo-inositol in a variety of tissues. When cells in kidney and brain are exposed to a hyperosmolar salt condition (hypertonicity) due to the operation of urinary concentration mechanism and pathological conditions, respectively; they survive the stress of hypertonicity by raising the cellular concentration of myo-inositol. Transcription of the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter gene is markedly stimulated in response to hypertonicity, leading to an increase in the activity of the cotransporter, which in turn drives the osmoprotective accumulation of myo-inositol. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which hypertonicity stimulates transcription, we analyzed the BI-flanking region of the cotransporter gene for cis-acting regulatory sequences. We identified five tonicity-responsive enhancers that are scattered over 50 kilobase pairs. All the enhancers are variations of the same type of enhancer interacting with the transcription factor named tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein. In vivo methylation experiments demonstrated that exposure of cells to hypertonicity increases the binding of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein to the enhancer sites, indicating that all of these enhancers are involved in the transcriptional stimulation. We conclude that the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter gene is regulated by a large region (similar to 50 kilobase pairs) upstream of the gene.
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