DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in hematologic differentiation and transformation
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- DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in hematologic differentiation and transformation
- Ko, Myunggon; An, Jungeun; Rao, Anjana
- Issue Date
- CURRENT BIOLOGY LTD
- CURRENT OPINION IN CELL BIOLOGY, v.37, pp.91 - 101
- Maintenance of the balance of DNA methylation and demethylation is fundamental for normal cellular development and function. Members of the Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) family proteins are Fe(II)-dependent and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that catalyze sequential oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and subsequent oxidized derivatives in DNA. In addition to their roles as intermediates in DNA demethylation, these oxidized methylcytosines are novel epigenetic modifications of DNA. DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation profiles are markedly disrupted in a wide range of cancers but how these changes are related to the pathogenesis of cancers is still ambiguous. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of TET protein functions in normal and malignant hematopoietic development and the ongoing questions to be resolved.
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