Sodium- and chloride-dependent transporters in brain, kidney, and gut: lessons from complementary DNA cloning and structure-function studies.
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- Sodium- and chloride-dependent transporters in brain, kidney, and gut: lessons from complementary DNA cloning and structure-function studies.
- Surratt, C.K.; Wang, J.B.; Yuhasz, S.; Amzel, M.; Kwon, H. Moo; Handler, J.S.; Uhl, G.R.
- Issue Date
- LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
- CURRENT OPINION IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION, v.2, no.5, pp.744 - 760
- The family of Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent, 12 transmembrane domain transporter proteins now includes transporters for neurotransmitter molecules in the brain and for substances important in extraneuronal tissues, including adrenal, kidney, and gut. Transported substrates include monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters and nonperturbing osmolytes. A common protein topology is predicted and features intracellular N- and C-termini possessing phosphorylation sites and at least one large extramembranous loop with N-linked glycosylation. Using the rat dopamine transporter as a template, molecular modeling of putative transmembrane domains coupled with amino acid sequence conservation analysis indicates amino acid residues potentially involved in substrate and/or ion recognition. Targeting such residues with site-directed mutagenesis will help clarify substrate and ion binding sites and should facilitate rational design of therapeutics to combat depression, locomotor disorders, and substance abuse.
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