Determination of interface dipole energy at the interface of ruthenium-oxide-coated anode with organic material using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy
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- Determination of interface dipole energy at the interface of ruthenium-oxide-coated anode with organic material using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy
- Kim, SY; Baik, Jeong Min; Lee, JL
- LIGHT-EMITTING-DIODES; LEVEL ALIGNMENT; METAL
- Issue Date
- ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC
- ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SOLID STATE LETTERS, v.8, no.9, pp.H79 - H81
- 4,4'-Bis[N-1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl (alpha-NPD) was deposited in situ on both ruthenium oxide-coated indium-tin oxide (RuOx-ITO) and O-2-plasma-treated ITO (O-2-ITO) anodes, and their interface dipole energies were quantitatively determined using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. The dipole energy of RuOx-ITO was lower by 0.2 eV than that of O-2-ITO even though RuOx-ITO had a higher work function. Secondary electron emission spectra after deposition of alpha-NPD on anodes revealed that the work function of RuOx-ITO is higher by 0.2 eV than that of O-2-ITO, resulting in a decrease of the turn-on voltage via reduction of hole injection barrier.
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