High enrichment and near real-time quantification of airborne viruses using a wet-paper-based electrochemical immunosensor under an electrostatic field
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- High enrichment and near real-time quantification of airborne viruses using a wet-paper-based electrochemical immunosensor under an electrostatic field
- Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Ngo, Nhan Dinh; Lee, Jaegil; Jang, Jaesung
- Issue Date
- Elsevier BV
- JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, v.442, pp.130006
- Conventional airborne virus measurement usually requires appreciable sampling and detection times. Viral aerosols should also be collected or prepared in a liquid medium whose volume typically ranges from milliliters to tens of milliliters; hence, many sampling and detection steps need to be taken with the unit horizontal or immobile. Moreover, viral aerosols need to be sufficiently enriched, which makes real-time monitoring difficult. Herein, we present a near real-time enrichment and quantification system of airborne viruses that consists of a wet-paper-based electrochemical immunosensor with a gel electrolyte and a modified electrostatic particle concentrator. A small amount of phosphate-buffered saline flowed on the electrode, which resulted in sensor electrodes that are barely wet (covered in a thin buffer film measuring several micrometers) to ensure antigen–antibody interaction and the removal of non-target particles on the electrode surface. This system ensures that airborne viruses are highly enriched on the working electrode of the immunosensor, and it is possible to measure the MS2 virus particle concentrations every 10 min for 60 min stably and selectively against non-target airborne viruses and bacteria at horizontal and tilted measurement configurations. This system thus has the potential to be used in the real-time mobile monitoring of airborne microorganisms.
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