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Ding, Feng
IBS - Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM)
Research Interests
  • Theoretical methods development for materials studies.
  • The formation mechanism of various carbon materials, from fullerene to carbon nanotube and graphene.
  • Kinetics and thermodynamics of materials growth and etching.
  • The structure, properties and fundamentals of nanomaterials.
  • The experimental synthesis of carbon nanotubes.


Seeded growth of large single-crystal copper foils with high-index facets

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Seeded growth of large single-crystal copper foils with high-index facets
Wu, MuhongZhang, ZhibinXu, XiaozhiZhang, ZhihongDuan, YunruiDong, JichenQiao, RuixiYou, SifanWang, LiQi, JiajieZou, DingxinShang, NianzeYang, YuboLi, HuiZhu, LanSun, JunliangYu, HaijunGao, PengBai, XuedongJiang, YingWang, Zhu-JunDing, FengYu, DapengWang, EngeLiu, Kaihui
Issue Date
NATURE, v.581, no.7809, pp.406 - 410
The production of large single-crystal metal foils with various facet indices has long been a pursuit in materials science owing to their potential applications in crystal epitaxy, catalysis, electronics and thermal engineering(1-5). For a given metal, there are only three sets of low-index facets ({100}, {110} and {111}). In comparison, high-index facets are in principle infinite and could afford richer surface structures and properties. However, the controlled preparation of single-crystal foils with high-index facets is challenging, because they are neither thermodynamically(6,7) nor kinetically(3) favourable compared to low-index facets(6-18). Here we report a seeded growth technique for building a library of single-crystal copper foils with sizes of about 30 x 20 square centimetres and more than 30 kinds of facet. A mild pre-oxidation of polycrystalline copper foils, followed by annealing in a reducing atmosphere, leads to the growth of high-index copper facets that cover almost the entire foil and have the potential of growing to lengths of several metres. The creation of oxide surface layers on our foils means that surface energy minimization is not a key determinant of facet selection for growth, as is usually the case. Instead, facet selection is dictated randomly by the facet of the largest grain (irrespective of its surface energy), which consumes smaller grains and eliminates grain boundaries. Our high-index foils can be used as seeds for the growth of other Cu foils along either the in-plane or the out-of-plane direction. We show that this technique is also applicable to the growth of high-index single-crystal nickel foils, and we explore the possibility of using our high-index copper foils as substrates for the epitaxial growth of two-dimensional materials. Other applications are expected in selective catalysis, low-impedance electrical conduction and heat dissipation.
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