Acute toxicities of fluorene, fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, and fluorene-9-carboxylic acid on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio): Molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicities of fluorene-1-carboxylic acid
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- Acute toxicities of fluorene, fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, and fluorene-9-carboxylic acid on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio): Molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicities of fluorene-1-carboxylic acid
- Kim, Yong-Chan; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Kim, Kyeongnam; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Lee, Sung-Eun
- Issue Date
- PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
- CHEMOSPHERE, v.260, pp.127622
- In this study, fluorene (FL), FL-1-carboxylic acid (FC-1), and FL-9-carboxylic acid (FC-9) were investigated to understand their acute toxicity by measuring inhibitory effects on hatching rates and developmental processes of zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). For exposure concentrations up to 3000 mu g/L, FC-1 alone showed acute toxicity at 1458 ng/L for LC50 value. FC-1 caused yolk sac and spinal deformities, and pericardial edema. Molecular studies were undertaken to understand FC-1 toxicity examining 61 genes after exposure to 5 mu M (equivalent to LC20 value of FC-1) in embryos. In the FC-1-treated embryos, the expression of the cyp7a1 gene, involved in bile acid biosynthesis, was dramatically decreased, while the expression of the Il-1 beta gene involved in inflammation was remarkably increased. In addition to these findings, in FC-1-treated embryos, the expression of nppa gene related to the differentiation of the myocardium was 3-fold increased. On the other hand, cyp1a, cyp3a, ugt1a1, abcc4, mdr1, and sult1st1 responsible for detoxification of xenobiotics were upregulated in FC-9-treated embryos. Taken together, carboxylation on carbon 1 of FL increased acute toxicity in zebrafish embryos, and its toxicity might be related to morphological changes with modification of normal biological functions and lowered defense ability. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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