Stoichiometric Layered Potassium Transition Metal Oxide for Rechargeable Potassium Batteries
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- Stoichiometric Layered Potassium Transition Metal Oxide for Rechargeable Potassium Batteries
- Kim, Haegyeom; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Urban, Alexander; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kwon, Deok-Hwang; Bo, Shou-Hang; Shi, Tan; Papp, Joseph K.; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Ceder, Gerbrand
- Issue Date
- AMER CHEMICAL SOC
- CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, v.30, no.18, pp.6532 - 6539
- K-ion batteries are promising alternative energy storage systems for large- scale applications because of the globally abundant K reserves. K-ion batteries benefit from the lower standard redox potential of K/K+ than that of Na/Na+ and even Li/Li+, which can translate into a higher working voltage. Stable KC8 can also be formed via K intercalation into a graphite anode, which contrasts with the thermodynamically unfavorable Na intercalation into graphite, making graphite a readily available anode for K-ion battery technology. However, to construct practical rocking-chair K-ion batteries, an appropriate cathode material that can accommodate reversible K release and storage is still needed. We show that stoichiometric KCrO2 with a layered O3-type structure can function as a cathode for K-ion batteries and demonstrate a practical rocking-chair K-ion battery. In situ X-ray diffraction and electrochemical titration demonstrate that KxCrO2 is stable for a wide K content, allowing for topotactic K extraction and reinsertion. We further explain why stoichiometric KCrO2 is unique in forming the layered structure unlike other stoichiometric K-transition metal oxide compounds, which form nonlayered structures; this fundamental understanding provides insight for the future design of other layered cathodes for K-ion batteries.
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