Multimodal Miniature Surface Forces Apparatus (μSFA) for Interfacial Science Measurements
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- Multimodal Miniature Surface Forces Apparatus (μSFA) for Interfacial Science Measurements
- Kristiansen, Kai; Donaldson, Stephen H.; Berkson, Zachariah J.; Scott, Jeffrey; Su, Rongxin; Banquy, Xavier; Lee, Dong Woog; De Aguiar, Hilton B.; McGraw, Joshua D.; Degen, George D.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.
- Issue Date
- American Chemical Society
- LANGMUIR, v.35, no.48, pp.15500 - 15514
- Advances in the research of intermolecular and surface interactions result from the development of new and improved measurement techniques and combinations of existing techniques. Here, we present a new miniature version of the surface forces apparatus - the μSFA - that has been designed for ease of use and multimodal capabilities with the retention of the capabilities of other SFA models including accurate measurements of the surface separation distance and physical characterization of dynamic and static physical forces (i.e., normal, shear, and friction) and interactions (e.g., van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric, and biospecific). The small physical size of the μSFA, compared to previous SFA models, makes it portable and suitable for integration into commercially available optical and fluorescence light microscopes, as demonstrated here. The large optical path entry and exit ports make it ideal for concurrent force measurements and spectroscopy studies. Examples of the use of the μSFA in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and Raman spectroscopy measurements are presented. Because of the short working distance constraints associated with Raman spectroscopy, an interferometric technique was developed and applied to calculate the intersurface separation distance based on Newton's rings. The introduction of the μSFA will mark a transition in SFA usage from primarily physical characterization to concurrent physical characterization with in situ chemical and biological characterization to study interfacial phenomena, including (but not limited to) molecular adsorption, fluid flow dynamics, the determination of surface species and morphology, and (bio)molecular binding kinetics.
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