Synthesis of isomerically pure carboxylate- and sulfonate-substituted xanthene fluorophores
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- Synthesis of isomerically pure carboxylate- and sulfonate-substituted xanthene fluorophores
- Woodroofe, CC; Lim, Mi Hee; Bu, WM; Lippard, SJ
- Asymmetric fluorescein carboxylate; Dibromofluoran; Fluorescein sulfonic acid; Fractional crystallization; Isomer resolution; Rhodamine carboxylate
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- PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
- TETRAHEDRON, v.61, no.12, pp.3097 - 3105
- Xanthene-based fluorophores such as fluorescein and rhodamine are typically prepared by acid-catalyzed condensation of the appropriate resorcinol or 3-aminophenol with phthalic anhydride. Condensation of substituted phthalic anhydride species results in functionalized fluorophores that are formed as mixed isomers. Crystallization approaches to isomer separation have been reported elsewhere for symmetric fluorescein carboxylates. We describe crystallization-based separation of protected fluorescein sulfonates and coupling conditions to form sulfonamides, precursors for carboxylate-substituted rhodamines, and precursors for asymmetrically substituted fluoresceins and rhodafluors.
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