High-Frequency EPR Analysis of MnO2-Doped [Bi0.5Na0.5]TiO3-BaTiO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics - Manganese Oxidation States and Materials 'Hardening'
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- High-Frequency EPR Analysis of MnO2-Doped [Bi0.5Na0.5]TiO3-BaTiO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics - Manganese Oxidation States and Materials 'Hardening'
- Erdem, Emre; Schaab, Silke; Jo, Wook; Ozarowski, Andrew; Van Tol, Johan; Eichel, Ruediger-A
- Bismuth titanate; Defect structure; High-frequency EPR; Manganese doping; Piezoelectrics
- Issue Date
- TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
- FERROELECTRICS, v.428, no., pp.116 - 121
- High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to identify different manganese oxidation states in the 0.5 mol% MnO2-doped (100-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-xBaTiO(3) (BNT-xBT) solid solution with x = 6. The as-sintered and air-annealed samples show two distinct EPR resonances that were assigned to Mn2+- and Mn3+ -ions, respectively, incorporated at the Ti-site. The equilibrium between acceptor-type Mn ''(Ti)- and Mn'(Ti)-states can be explained by the thermodynamic equilibration under air at the sintering temperature corresponding to [n] > [p], which yields an n-type Mn:BNT-6BT compound.
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