The role of in situ generated nano-sized metal particles on the coulombic efficiency of MGeO3 (M = Cu, Fe, and Co) electrodes
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- The role of in situ generated nano-sized metal particles on the coulombic efficiency of MGeO3 (M = Cu, Fe, and Co) electrodes
- Kim, Chang H.; Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Kyu Tae; Ku, Jun H.; Oh, Seung M.
- Anode; Coulombic efficiency; Lithium ion batteries; Metal oxide electrodes; Nano-sized metal particles
- Issue Date
- PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
- ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, v.54, no.18, pp.4371 - 4377
- To improve the coulombic efficiency of GeO2 electrode, a Cu-containing ternary metal oxide (CuGeO3) was prepared and the electrochemical behavior of Cu component was studied. The GeO2 electrode shows a low coulombic efficiency in the first cycle (43%), which is mainly caused by a poor Ge oxidation kinetics (Ge + 2Li2O → GeO2 + 2Li+ + 2e-). The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data illustrate that the Cu component in CuGeO3 is converted to nano-sized metallic Cu in the earlier stage of lithiation but idles thereafter. In contrast, the Ge component in CuGeO3 behaves like the GeO2 electrode. It is converted to nano-sized Ge by a conversion reaction and further lithiated by alloying reaction. The de-lithiation proceeds in the reverse order. The CuGeO3 electrode shows a much improved coulombic efficiency (74%) in the first cycle, which is indebted to a facilitated Ge oxidation with a much reduced electrode polarization. This feature has been explained by the favorable roles provided by the in situ generated nano-sized metallic Cu particles that make such an intimate contact with the nano-sized Ge and Li2O that they can catalyze Li2O decomposition and provide an electronic conductive network for Ge oxidation. A similar favorable effect was observed with the other ternary oxides (FeGeO3 and CoGeO3), wherein the formation of nano-sized metallic Fe and Co can be assumed.
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