Modeling of laser keyhole welding: Part I. Mathematical modeling, numerical methodology, role of recoil pressure, multiple reflections, and free surface evolution
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- Modeling of laser keyhole welding: Part I. Mathematical modeling, numerical methodology, role of recoil pressure, multiple reflections, and free surface evolution
- Ki, Hyungson; Mohanty, PS; Mazumder, J
- LIQUID-PHASE-CHANGE; LEVEL SET APPROACH; CONTINUUM MODEL; DENDRITIC SOLIDIFICATION; SPECIES TRANSPORT; PENETRATION DEPTH; TRANSIENT MODEL; CHANGE SYSTEMS; UNIFIED MODEL; DYNAMICS
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- METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, v.33, no.6, pp.1817 - 1830
- A three-dimensional laser-keyhole welding model is developed, featuring the self-consistent evolution of the liquid/vapor (L/V) interface together with full simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer. Important interfacial phenomena, such as free surface evolution, evaporation, kinetic Knudsen layer, homogeneous boiling, and multiple reflections, are considered and applied to the model. The level set approach is adopted to incorporate the L/V interface boundary conditions in the Navier-Stokes equation and energy equation. Both thermocapillary force and recoil pressure, which are the major driving forces for the melt flow, are incorporated in the formulation. For melting and solidification processes at the solid/liquid (S/L) interface, the mixture continuum model has been employed. The article consists of two parts. This article (Part I) presents the model formulation and discusses the effects of evaporation, free surface evolution, and multiple reflections on a steady molten pool to demonstrate the relevance of these interfacial phenomena. The results of the full keyhole simulation and the experimental verification will be provided in the companion article (Part II).
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