Calmodulin interacts with MLO protein to regulate defence against mildew in barley
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- Calmodulin interacts with MLO protein to regulate defence against mildew in barley
- Kim, MC; Panstruga, R; Elliott, C; Muller, J; Devoto, A; Yoon, HW; Park, HC; Cho, Moo Je; Schulze-Lefert, P
- POWDERY MILDEW; ALPHA-SUBUNIT; CELL-DEATH; DISEASE RESISTANCE; OXIDATIVE BURST; ACTIVATION; CALCIUM; MUTATIONS; GENE; INCREASE
- Issue Date
- NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
- NATURE, v.416, no.6879, pp.447 - 450
- In plants, defence against specific isolates of a pathogen can be triggered by the presence of a corresponding race-specific resistance gene, whereas resistance of a more broad-spectrum nature can result from recessive, presumably loss-of-regulatory-function, mutations. An example of the latter are mlo mutations in barley, which have been successful in agriculture for the control of powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei; Bgh). MLO protein resides in the plasma membrane, has seven transmembrane domains, and is the prototype of a sequence-diversified family unique to plants, reminiscent of the seven-transmembrane receptors in fungi and animals. In animals, these are known as G-protein- coupled receptors and exist in three main families, lacking sequence similarity, that are thought to be an example of molecular convergence. MLO seems to function independently of heterotrimeric G proteins. We have identified a domain in MLO that mediates a Ca2+-dependent interaction with calmodulin in vitro. Loss of calmodulin binding halves the ability of MLO to negatively regulate defence against powdery mildew in vivo. We propose a sensor role for MLO in the modulation of defence reactions.
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