Optimization and application of passive air sampling method for gaseous elemental mercury in Ulsan, South Korea
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- Optimization and application of passive air sampling method for gaseous elemental mercury in Ulsan, South Korea
- Cho, In-Gyu; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Kwon, Sae Yun; Choi, Sung-Deuk
- Issue Date
- SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
- ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, v.30, pp.17257 - 17267
- We compared uptake rates and concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) by passive sampling conditions and investigated the spatial distribution of GEM in Ulsan, the largest industrial city in South Korea. For the optimization of sampling conditions, two outer sampling containers (cylindrical polyethylene terephthalate and two stainless steel bowls), two different sulfur contents of the sorbent (16.3% and 26.3%), and three sampling periods (1, 2, and 3 months) were considered. The uptake rates of GEM were not statistically different by the sampling container, but they were increased with the sulfur contents of activated carbon. A sampling condition using two stainless bowls and lower sulfur contents of activated carbon for 2-3 months was preferred with the highest precision of GEM concentrations. With the same method, passive air samples were collected for 3 months in duplicate from 10 sites in Ulsan. The concentrations of GEM ranged from 3.13 to 11.2 ng/m(3) (mean 4.65 ng/m(3)), and the highest concentration was measured at a non-ferrous industrial complex. A zinc smelter in the non-ferrous industrial complex was identified as a major mercury source in Ulsan. This study is the first passive air sampling study investigating the spatial distributions of GEM in different types of industrial areas as well as residential areas of Ulsan.
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