Organochlorine pesticides in the urban, suburban, agricultural, and industrial soil in South Korea after three decades of ban: Spatial distribution, sources, time trend, and implicated risks
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- Organochlorine pesticides in the urban, suburban, agricultural, and industrial soil in South Korea after three decades of ban: Spatial distribution, sources, time trend, and implicated risks
- Khuman, Sanjenbam Nirmala; Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ho-Joong; Hwang, Seung-Man; Lee, Chang-Ho; Choi, Sung-Deuk
- Issue Date
- ELSEVIER SCI LTD
- ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, v.311, pp.119938
- Organochlorine pesticides in soil samples across urban, suburban, agricultural, and industrial sites were analyzed every year between 2013 and 2016 in South Korea. The study aims to understand the residual status, diminution of occurrence from the South Korean environment, and its risk to humans after three decades of the ban. A general decreasing trend of OCPs has been observed over the years. The OCP concentrations were below the guideline values prescribed for soil pollution. Metabolites like p,p'-DDD and endosulfan sulfate contributed a major portion to the total OCP concentration over the years. The agricultural sites showed higher OCP levels than other site types. Compositional profile and diagnostic ratios suggested that the occurrence of DDT and endosulfan residues were due to historical inputs, but those of HCH and chlordane reflect recent usage in some pockets. The calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk was within the safety limit for all age groups across the genders in the majority of the sites. It is evident that the OCP load on soil is decreasing since the ban on usage. However, regular monitoring with a special focus on metabolites can be an effective control measure to regulate and eliminate the contamination of OCPs.
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