Upregulation of three Drosophila homologs of human chromosome 21 genes alters synaptic function: Implications for Down syndrome
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- Upregulation of three Drosophila homologs of human chromosome 21 genes alters synaptic function: Implications for Down syndrome
- Chang, Karen T.; Min, Kyung-Tai
- Dap160; Down syndrome; Nebula; Synaptojanin
- Issue Date
- NATL ACAD SCIENCES
- PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, v.106, no.40, pp.17117 - 17122
- At the neuronal level of Down syndrome (DS) brains, there are evidences of altered shape, number, and density of synapses, as well as aberrant endocytosis associated with accumulation of enlarged endosomes, suggesting that proteins involved in synaptic vesicle recycling may play key roles in DS neurons. However, the exact mechanism underlying those anomalies is not well understood. We hypothesize that overexpression of three genes, dap160/itsn1, synj/synj1, and nla/dscr1, located on human chromosome 21 play important roles in DS neurons. Here, we systematically investigate the effects of multiple gene overexpression on synaptic morphology and endocytosis to identify possible dominant gene or genes. We found that overexpression of individual genes lead to abnormal synaptic morphology, but all three genes are necessary to cause impaired vesicle recycling and affect locomotor vigor. Furthermore, we report that dap160 overexpression alters the subcellular distribution of synaptojanin, and overexpression of nla regulates the phosphoinositol 5′ phosphatase activity of synaptojanin. These findings imply that restoring the level of any one of these genes may reduce endocytic defects seen in DS.
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