Understanding lithium, sodium, and potassium storage mechanisms in silicon oxycarbide
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- Understanding lithium, sodium, and potassium storage mechanisms in silicon oxycarbide
- Chandra, Christian; Devina, Winda; Cahyadi, Handi Setiadi; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jaehoon
- Issue Date
- Elsevier BV
- CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, v.428, pp.131072
- The use of silicon oxycarbides (SiOCs) as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries has risen considerably in recent years. However, the amorphous and complex structures of SiOCs that contains C-rich and O-rich SiOC phases make it difficult to clarify Li+- and Na+-ion storage mechanisms experimentally. This study uncovers the Li+-, Na+-, and K+-ion storage mechanisms in both the O-rich SiO1.5C0.5 and C-rich SiO0.5C1.5 structures using the density functional theory. The ions inserted at the initial discharge process fill the microvoids in the SiOCs. A further ion insertion causes Si–O and Si–C bond cleavage, and thus results in the formation of a large-size free volume, which is favorable for subsequent ion insertion. The reasons for the high Li+-ion storage capacity as compared to Na+-ion are less severe volume expansion, more favorable formation of Li-rich Si compounds and Li–Si alloys. The theoretical K+-ion storage capacities in the O-rich SiO1.5C0.5 and C-rich SiO0.5C1.5 phases are much lower (335 and 186 mAh g−1, respectively) than those of Li+-ion (519 and 681 mAh g−1, respectively) and Na+-ion storages (335 and 681 mAh g−1, respectively). The huge structural instability caused by the repulsive interaction between the K+ ions results in the low storage capacity.
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