Electrochemically Induced Crystallite Alignment of Lithium Manganese Oxide to Improve Lithium Insertion Kinetics for Dye-Sensitized Photorechargeable Batteries
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- Electrochemically Induced Crystallite Alignment of Lithium Manganese Oxide to Improve Lithium Insertion Kinetics for Dye-Sensitized Photorechargeable Batteries
- Lee, Myeong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Man; Lee, Yeongdae; Han, Hyun-Gyu; Cho, Minjae; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Song, Hyun-Kon
- Issue Date
- AMER CHEMICAL SOC
- ACS ENERGY LETTERS, v.6, no.4, pp.1198 - 1204
- The insertion of lithium into lithium manganese oxide spinel (LiMn2O4 (LMO) to Li2Mn2O4 (L2MO)) was used to store light energy as a form of chemical energy in a dye-sensitized photorechargeable battery (DSPB). Herein, we investigate the effect of crystallite size of LMO on DSPB performance. The crystallite size of graphene-wrapped sub-micrometer-sized LMO (LMO@Gn) was tuned electrochemically from 26 to 34 nm via repeated LMO-to-L2MO transitions. The different crystallite orientations in LMO@Gn particles were ordered in an identical direction by an electric stimulus. The LMO@Gn having a 34 nm crystallite size (L-34 and L-34*) improved DSPB performances in dim light, compared with the smaller-crystallite LMO@Gn (L-26). The overall energy efficiency (eta(overall)) of 13.2%, higher than ever reported, was achieved by adopting the fully crystallized and structure-stabilized LMO@Gn (L-34*) for DSPB. The phase transition between the cubic and tetragonal forms during the LMO-to-L2MO reaction was suspected to be responsible for the structural ordering.
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