Long-term nationwide assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls ambient air concentrations for ten years in South Korea
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- Long-term nationwide assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls ambient air concentrations for ten years in South Korea
- Kim, Ho-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Woo; Hwang, Seung-Man; Chu, Kyung-Il; Cha, Yong-Ho; Kwak, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Hee; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Aslam, Muhammad; Kim, Chang-Gyun
- Issue Date
- PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
- CHEMOSPHERE, v.263, pp.127903
- In this study, seasonal/regional variations of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs) and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyls in the ambient air were monitored for ten years (2008e2017) using a high volume air sampler. As a result of strict regulation enforced by Korea Ministry of Environment in 2008, PCDD/DFs concentrations in the ambient air decreased from 0.051 pg I-TEQ Sm-3 in 2009 to 0.014 pg I-TEQ Sm-3 in 2017 which was comparably associated with cut-down of their emission sources from 880.2 g I-TEQ Sm-3 in 2001 to 24.2 g I-TEQ Sm-3 in 2015; revealing that it was only 2.7% against that of 2001. In 2017, mean TEQ concentration level of PCDD/DFs in the air of South Korea was quite low in comparison to its ambient environmental standards of 0.6 pg I-TEQ Sm-3 for PCDD/DFs. Particularly, the sum of PCDD/DFs in the background revealed the lowest level, however, the fraction of octachlorodibenzodioxin among other isomers exposed at the highest level in this study, suggesting that the ambient air quality in the background being studied was severely and persistently impaired by inflowing unknown sources of any possible anthropogenic transboundary migratory air pollutants. Moreover, this study conducted the scientific analysis of the long-term variations in the ambient air and emission sources using principal component analysis. From this of 10 years long-term nationwide assessments for the PCDD/DFs and dl-PCBs in the ambient air, it is possible to prove that South Korean environmental policy to manage POPs has been successfully conducted for the last ten years. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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