Morphological-Electrical Property Relation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)(2) Solar Cells: Significance of Crystal Grain Growth and Band Grading by Potassium Treatment
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- Morphological-Electrical Property Relation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)(2) Solar Cells: Significance of Crystal Grain Growth and Band Grading by Potassium Treatment
- Kim, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Min Kyu; Gadisa, Abay; Stuard, Samuel J.; Nahid, Masrur Morshed; Kwon, Soyeong; Bae, Soohyun; Kim, Byoungwoo; Park, Gi Soon; Won, Da Hye; Lee, Dong Ki; Kim, Dong-Wook; Shin, Tae Joo; Do, Young Rag; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Won Jun; Ade, Harald; Min, Byoung Koun
- Issue Date
- WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
- SMALL, v.16, no.48, pp.2003865
- Solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)(2) (CIGS) has a great potential for the production of large-area photovoltaic devices at low cost. However, CIGS solar cells processed from solution exhibit relatively lower performance compared to vacuum-processed devices because of a lack of proper composition distribution, which is mainly instigated by the limited Se uptake during chalcogenization. In this work, a unique potassium treatment method is utilized to improve the selenium uptake judiciously, enhancing grain sizes and forming a wider bandgap minimum region. Careful engineering of the bandgap grading structure also results in an enlarged space charge region, which is favorable for electron-hole separation and efficient charge carrier collection. Besides, this device processing approach has led to a linearly increasing electron diffusion length and carrier lifetime with increasing the grain size of the CIGS film, which is a critical achievement for enhancing photocurrent yield. Overall, 15% of power conversion efficiency is achieved in solar cells processed from environmentally benign solutions. This approach offers critical insights for precise device design and processing rules for solution-processed CIGS solar cells.
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