High energy density anodes using hybrid Li intercalation and plating mechanisms on natural graphite
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- High energy density anodes using hybrid Li intercalation and plating mechanisms on natural graphite
- Son, Yeonguk; Lee, Taeyong; Wen, Bo; Ma, Jiyoung; Jo, Changshin; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Boies, Adam; Cho, Jaephil; De Volder, Michael
- Issue Date
- Royal Society of Chemistry
- ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, v.13, no.10, pp.3723 - 3731
- Lithium plating on conventional graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries is typically considered an undesirable side reaction, a safety hazard or a degradation mechanism. However, lithium plating and stripping allow for efficient energy storage, and therefore various new porous anode designs with tailored surface coatings and electrolyte systems have been proposed to achieve reversible Li plating and stripping. Unfortunately, these material designs often rely on highly porous plating scaffolds with an overall lower volumetric energy and power density than conventional graphite anodes. Herein, a novel anode design is presented which leverages the good volumetric performance of industrial graphite anodes and further enhances their capacity by allowing for a reversible Li plating on their surface. The latter is achieve by conformally coating them with a nanoscale lithiophilic Si coating. As a result, excellent volumetric energy densities of 656 mA h cm(-3)and gravimetric capacities of 551 mA h g(-1)are achieved, which are a clear improvement compared to the commercial graphite anode (app. 570 mA h cm(-3)and 360 mA h g(-1)respectively). Moreover, by carefully balancing the thickness of the Si layer and the plating capacity, a capacity retention close to 100% is achieved after 200 cycles in half cells. Overall, this approach leverages the advances in industrial graphite anode manufacturing while at the same time embracing the additional capacity offered by reversible plating and stripping of Li metal, resulting in full cells energy densities of 474 W h kg(-1)and 912 W h L-1, which is a step forward compared to previous Li metal and graphite anodes.
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