Boosted molecular mobility during common chemical reactions
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- Boosted molecular mobility during common chemical reactions
- Wang, Huan; Park, Myeonggon; Dong, Ruoyu; Kim, Junyoung; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Tlusty, Tsvi; Granick, Steve
- Issue Date
- AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE
- SCIENCE, v.369, no.6503, pp.537 - +
- Mobility of reactants and nearby solvent is more rapid than Brownian diffusion during several common chemical reactions when the energy release rate exceeds a threshold. Screening a family of 15 organic chemical reactions, we demonstrate the largest boost for catalyzed bimolecular reactions, click chemistry, ring-opening metathesis polymerization, and Sonogashira coupling. Boosted diffusion is also observed but to lesser extent for the uncatalyzed Diels-Alder reaction, but not for substitution reactions S(N)1 and S(N)2 within instrumental resolution. Diffusion coefficient increases as measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, whereas in microfluidics experiments, molecules in reaction gradients migrate "uphill" in the direction of lesser diffusivity. This microscopic consumption of energy by chemical reactions transduced into mechanical motion presents a form of active matter.
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