Nitrile-assistant eutectic electrolytes for cryogenic operation of lithium ion batteries at fast charges and discharges
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- Nitrile-assistant eutectic electrolytes for cryogenic operation of lithium ion batteries at fast charges and discharges
- Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kim, Young-Soo; Sung, Dong-Gil; Seo, Myung-Su; Song, Hyun-Kon
- Issue Date
- ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY
- ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, v.7, no.5, pp.1737 - 1743
- The charge/discharge characteristics of lithium ion batteries at low temperature (LT = -20 °C) are enhanced by using ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes with the help of assistant solvents of nitriles. Conventional liquid electrolytes (e.g. a mixture of EC and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), abbreviated as LED) cannot support a satisfactory capacity at low temperature as well as at high rates even if electric vehicles require low-temperature operation. Introducing propionitrile or butyronitrile (Pn or Bn) into LED (resulting in LEDPn or LEDBn) as a co-solvent increases significantly the high-rate capacities at -20°C. For example, LEDPn delivers 62% of the available capacity at 1 C and 46% at 3 C with a 2.7 V cut-off while the control LED provides just 6% and 4% at the same rates. Successful operation at -20°C with nitrile-assistant electrolytes results from high ionic conductivity, low viscosity and freezing point depression caused by the eutectic behavior of the carbonates (EC/DMC) and Pn. Based on the phase diagram of Pn with EC/DMC, we expect a meaningful battery operation up to -110°C, probably lower, at the eutectic composition.
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