Nanocomposites based on vapor-grown carbon nanofibers and an epoxy: Functionalization, preparation and characterization
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- Nanocomposites based on vapor-grown carbon nanofibers and an epoxy: Functionalization, preparation and characterization
- Wang, David H.; Sihn, Sangwook; Roy, Ajit K.; Baek, Jong-Beom; Tan, Loon-Seng
- Additive effects; Benzoic acid; Curing agents; Epichlorohydrin; Friedel-crafts acylation; Functionalizations; Functionalized; In-situ; In-situ polymerization; SEM; Sodium hydroxide solutions; Tensile moduli; Thermal analysis; Thermal stability; Vapor grown carbon nanofibers
- Issue Date
- PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
- EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, v.46, no.7, pp.1404 - 1416
- Vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) were functionalized with amine-containing pendants via a Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction with 4-(3-aminophenoxy)benzoic acid. The resulting H(2)N-VGCNF was treated with epichlorohydrin, followed by sodium hydroxide solution to afford N,N-diglycidyl-modified VGCNF that is designated as epoxy-VGCNF. Subsequently, epoxy-VGCNF was dispersed in an epoxy resin (Epon 862) with the aid of acetone and sonication. After acetone had been removed under vacuum from the mixture, curing agent "W" was added to epoxy-VGCNF/Epon 862 mixture, which was then poured into molds and cured at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) for 2 h and 350 degrees F (177 degrees C) for 2 h to form a series of epoxy/fVGCNF samples; fVGCNF designated for "functionalized VGCNF" was used to denote our belief that all epoxy functions have reacted in the resulting nanocomposites. The VGCNF content was increased from 0.10 to 10.0 wt%. For comparison purposes, the pristine VGCNF or pVGCNF (0.1-5.0 wt%) was also used in the in situ polymerization of Epon 862 and curing agent "W" to afford another series of epoxy/pVGCNF samples. The epoxy-VGCNF showed a better dispersion in the epoxy resin than pVGCNF according to SEM results. Both the tensile moduli and strengths of epoxy/fVGCNF nanocomposites are higher than those of epoxy/pVGCNF. The additive effect of VGCNF on glass-transition (T(g)) was discussed in terms of thermal analysis results. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
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