Structure-dependent sodium ion storage mechanism of cellulose nanocrystal-based carbon anodes for highly efficient and stable batteries
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- Structure-dependent sodium ion storage mechanism of cellulose nanocrystal-based carbon anodes for highly efficient and stable batteries
- Kim, Yea Eun; Yeom, Su Jeong; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kang, Sujin; Kang, Haisu; Lee, Ga-Hyeun; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Seung Geol; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Chae, Han Gi
- Issue Date
- JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, v.468, pp.228371
- We herein report the preparation of SIBs using carbon anodes based on spray-dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) carbonized over a wide temperature range (i.e., 800-2500 degrees C). The structural variations in the CNC-based carbon anodes are correlated with the sodiation mechanism by investigating the galvanostatic voltage profiles, and it is found that Na ion adsorption takes place in the less-ordered carbonaceous structures followed by intercalation into the more ordered internal carbon structure with an average interlayer spacing of >0.37 nm. Among the various anodes examined, the CNCs carbonized at 1500 degrees C (C1500) deliver the highest reversible specific capacity of 311 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 10 mA g(-1), and exhibit an outstanding rate capability (273 mA h g(-1) at 400 mA g(-1)). In addition, they also possess an excellent specific capacity retention of 92.3% even after 400 cycles at 100 mA g(-1), along with an initial coulombic efficiency of 85%. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation exhibits that the energy barrier for Na ion intercalation of C1500 (0.20 eV) is almost a half that of the CNCs carbonized at 2500 degrees C (0.39 eV).
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