서울의 최근 자외선 복사의 변화 2004~2010
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- 서울의 최근 자외선 복사의 변화 2004~2010
- Other Titles
- Recent Variations of UV Irradiance at Seoul 2004~2010
- 김준; 박상서; 조나영; 김우경; 조희구
- Issue Date
- 대기, v.21, no.4, pp.429 - 438
- The climatology of surface UV radiation for Seoul, presented in Cho et al. (1998;2001), has been updated using measurement of surface erythemal ultraviolet (EUV) and total ultraviolet (TUV) irradiance (wavelength 286.5~363.0 nm) by a Brewer Spectrophotometer (MK-IV) for the period 2004~2010. The analysis was also carried out together with the broadband total (global) solar irradiance (TR ; 305~2800 nm) and cloud amount to compare with the UV variations, measured by Seoul meteorological station of Korean Meteorological Agency located near the present study site. Under all-sky conditions, the day-to-day variability of EUV exhibits annual mean of 98% in increase and 31% in decrease. It has been also shown that the EUV variability is 17 times as high as the total ozone in positive change, whereas this is 6 times higher in negative change. Thus, the day to day variability is dominantly caused rather by the daily synoptic situations than by the ozone variability. Annual mean value of daily EUV and TUV shows 1.62 kJm^(-2) and 0.63 MJm^(-2) respectively, whereas mean value of TR is 12.4 MJm^(-2)(143.1Wm^(-2)). The yearly maximum in noon-time UV Index (UVI) varies between 9 and 11depending on time of year. The highest UVI shows 11 on 20 July, 2008 during the period 2004~2010, but for the period 1994~2000, the index of 12 was recorded on 13 July, 1994 (Cho et al., 2001). A 40% of daily maximum UVI belongs to “low (UVI < 2)”, whereas the UVI less than 5% of the maximum show “very high (8 < UVI < 10)”. On average, the maximum UVI exceeded 8 on 9 days per year. The values of Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS) EUV and UVI under cloud-free conditions are 1.8 times and 1.5 times, respectively,higher than the all-sky measurements by the Brewer. The trend analysis in fractional deviation of monthly UV from the reference value shows a decrease of -0.83% and -0.90% decade-1 in the EUV and TUV, respectively, whereas the TR trend is near zero (+0.11% decade^(-1)). The trend is statistically significant except for TR trend (p = 0.279). It is possible that the recent UV decrease is mainly associated with increase in total ozone, but the trend in TR can be attributed to the other parameters such as clouds except the ozone. Certainly, the cloud effects suggest that the reason for the differences between UV and TR trends can be explained. In order to estimate cloud effects, the EUV, TUV and TR irradiances have been also evaluated for clear skies (cloud cover < 25%) and cloudy skies (cloud cover ≥ 75%). Annual mean values show that EUV, TUV and TR are 2.15 kJm^(-2), 0.83 MJm^(-2), and 17.9MJm^(-2) for clear skies, and 1.24 kJm^(-2), 0.46 MJm^(-2), and 7.2 MJm^(-2 )for cloudy skies, respectively. As results, the transmission of radiation through clouds under cloudy-sky conditions is observed to be 58%, 55% and 40% for EUV, TUV and TR,respectively. Consequently, it is clear that the cloud effects on EUV and TUV are 18% and 15%,respectively lower than the effects on TR under cloudy-sky conditions. Clouds under all-sky conditions (average of cloud cover is 5 tenths) reduced the EUV and TUV to about 25% of the clear-sky (cloud cover < 25%) values, whereas for TR, this was 31%. As a result, it is noted that the UV radiation is attenuated less than TR by clouds under all weather conditions.
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