Distribution and diastereoisomeric profiles of hexabromocyclododecanes in air, water, soil, and sediment samples in South Korea: Application of an optimized analytical method
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- Distribution and diastereoisomeric profiles of hexabromocyclododecanes in air, water, soil, and sediment samples in South Korea: Application of an optimized analytical method
- Jeon, Jin-Woo; Kim, Chul-Su; Kim, Leesun; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Ho-Joong; Lee, Chang-Ho; Choi, Sung-Deuk
- Issue Date
- Academic Press
- ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, v.181, pp.321 - 329
- In this study, the levels and distribution patterns of HBCD diastereoisomers in air, water, soil, and sediment samples in South Korea were investigated after optimizing the UPLC-MS/MS analytical process. Extraction and cleanup efficiencies were tested using several different extraction solvents and adsorbents. Dichloromethane was selected as the base extraction solvent, and multi-layer silica gel (MSG) and MSG−alumina columns were selected for the removal of HBCDs from complex environmental matrices. The concentration of Ʃ3 HBCDs was 22–133 pg/m3, 10–128 ng/g, 0.2–151 ng/L, and 0.5–552 ng/g dw for air, soil, water, and sediment samples, respectively. Relatively higher concentrations of Ʃ3 HBCDs were observed at stations adjacent to industrial facilities (e.g., rubber and plastic, textile, chemical, fabricated metal, and wholesale trade factories) associated with the use of commercial HBCDs. The proportion of γ-HBCD in the soil (48.3–86.2%) and sediment (54.2–78.1%, except for one station) samples was similar to that found in technical and commercial HBCDs. In contrast, α-HBCD (52.3–71.2%) was dominant in all air samples, while the water samples displayed no clear trend in their diastereoisomer profiles. As the first nationwide report on HBCD diastereoisomers in the environment, this study demonstrates that most environmental compartments in South Korea are moderately contaminated with HBCDs.
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