Cognitive Motivations of Free Riding and Cooperation and Impaired Strategic Decision Making in Schizophrenia During a Public Goods Game
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- Cognitive Motivations of Free Riding and Cooperation and Impaired Strategic Decision Making in Schizophrenia During a Public Goods Game
- Chung, Dongil; Kim, Yang-Tae; Jeong, Jaeseung
- Issue Date
- OXFORD UNIV PRESS
- SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN, v.39, no.1, pp.112 - 119
- Schizophrenia is generally characterized by various positive and negative symptoms that are accompanied by significant social dysfunction. Various researchers investigated the functional impairments in schizophrenia including impaired theory of mind (TOM), poor integration of affective and cognitive information, and malfunctioning of adaptive and strategic learning process. However, most of the studies were limited to simplified cognitive tests or computerized choice games that exclude real social interaction. The aim of the current study was to investigate human strategies based on the incentives and particularly the cognitive and emotional motivations of free riding. We examined the decision patterns of 41 healthy subjects (HSs) and 37 schizophrenia patients (SZ) during the public goods game (PGG), one of the games simulating human cooperation and free riding in group interactions. Strategic decision processes during the iterative binary PGG were assessed in terms of cognitive understanding, loss sensitivity, and TOM. We found that greed and loss sensitivity both motivated free-riding behavior in the HS, but that they were more vulnerable to greedy incentives than to possible loss. More significantly, the SZ clearly displayed a lower prevalence of free riding and distinct decision patterns from HS. Nonstrategic and unexpectedly low free ridings in the SZ likely arise from poor integration of cognitive and affective information. We suggest that loss sensitivity and TOM as well as cognitive understanding are involved in regulation of the free riding and cooperative behavior.
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