High-level production of violacein by the newly isolated Duganella violaceinigra str. NI28 and its impact on Staphylococcus aureus
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- High-level production of violacein by the newly isolated Duganella violaceinigra str. NI28 and its impact on Staphylococcus aureus
- Choi, Seong Yeol; Kim, Sooyeon; Lyuck, Sungsoo; Kim, Seung Bum; Mitchell, Robert J.
- Issue Date
- NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
- SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, v.5, pp.15598
- A violacein-producing bacterial strain was isolated and identified as a relative of Duganella violaceinigra YIM 31327 based upon phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA, gyrB and vioA gene sequences and a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This new strain was designated D. violaceinigra str. NI28. Although these two strains appear related based upon these analyses, the new isolate was phenotypically different from the type strain as it grew 25% faster on nutrient media and produced 45-fold more violacein. When compared with several other violacein producing strains, including Janthinobacterium lividum, D. violaceinigra str. NI28 was the best violacein producer. For instance, the crude violacein yield with D. violaceinigra str. NI28 was 6.0 mg/OD at 24 hours, a value that was more than two-fold higher than all the other strains. Finally, the antibacterial activity of D. violaceinigra str. NI28 crude violacein was assayed using several multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Addition of 30 mu M crude violacein led to a 96% loss in the initial S. aureus population while the minimum inhibitory concentration was 1.8 mu M. Consequently, this novel isolate represents a phenotypic variant of D. violaceinigra capable of producing much greater quantities of crude violacein, an antibiotic effective against multidrug resistant S. aureus
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