Spectroscopic Evaluation of Out-of-Plane Surface Vibration Bands from Surface Functionalization of Graphite Oxide by Fluorination
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- Spectroscopic Evaluation of Out-of-Plane Surface Vibration Bands from Surface Functionalization of Graphite Oxide by Fluorination
- Acik, Muge; Yagneswaran, Sriram; Peng, Weina; Lee, Geunsik; Lund, Benjamin R.; Smith, Dennis W., Jr.; Chabal, Yves J.
- LITHIUM-ION BATTERY; CARBONATE-CONTAINING SOLVENT; MODIFIED NATURAL GRAPHITE; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON; ELECTROCHEMICAL-BEHAVIOR; GRAPHENE OXIDE; ANODE MATERIAL; CHARGE/DISCHARGE BEHAVIOR; MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS; RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY
- Issue Date
- PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
- CARBON, v.77, no., pp.577 - 591
- The fluorination of graphite/graphite oxide (GO) and their derivatives has been widely investigated for how fluorine interacts with sp2/sp 3 carbon; however, the mechanism of this interaction has not yet been elucidated. Fluorination of GO (FGO) at either 10 or 15 psi for 24 h, produced two new absorption bands at ∼743 cm-1 and 482 cm -1, and are attributed to the presence of out-of-plane surface fluorine bonds in FGO (absent in fluorographite - FG). IR studies confirmed the stability of the formed C-F bonds and defect formation due to the introduction of oxyfluorinated species into the graphitic carbon through fluorination of epoxides. Fluorination of GO resulted in ∼4-5 times more fluorine incorporation in bulk as compared to FG. (4.57 vs. 0.8 at.% and 6.64 vs. 1.4 at.% at 10 and 15 psi, respectively). PXRD analyses also showed that the interlayer spacing of FGO expanded in the presence of intercalated C-F species and a defect formation was observed with the evidence of increase of the I D/IG ratio from Raman spectra. To this end, understanding the origin of surface C-F bonds and structural changes in FGO therefore leads to new applications such as implementation of FGO for sensing, nano-electronics and energy storage. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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