A CMOS Image Sensor Based on Unified Pixel Architecture with Time-Division Multiplexing Scheme for Color and Depth Image Acquisition
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- A CMOS Image Sensor Based on Unified Pixel Architecture with Time-Division Multiplexing Scheme for Color and Depth Image Acquisition
- Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, James D. K.; Kang, Byongmin; Lee, Keechang
- Issue Date
- IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
- IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, v.47, no.11, pp.2834 - 2845
- We propose a CMOS image sensor with time-division multiplexing pixel architecture using standard pinned-photodiode for capturing 2-D color image as well as extracting 3-D depth information of a target object. The proposed pixel can alternately provide both color and depth images in each frame. Two split photodiode and four transfer gates in each pixel improve the transfer speed of generated electrons to be capable of demodulating a high-frequency time-of-flight signal. In addition, four-shared pixel architecture acquires a color image with high spatial resolution and generates a reliable depth map by inherent binning operation in charge domain. A 712 × 496 pixel array has been fabricated using a 0.11-μm standard CMOS imaging process and fully characterized. A 6-μm pixel with 34.5% aperture ratio can be operated at 10-MHz modulation frequency with 70% demodulation contrast. We have successfully captured both images of exactly same scene from the fabricated test chip. It shows a depth uncertainty of less than 60 mm and a linearity error of about 2% between 1 and 3 m distance with 50-ms integration time. Moreover, high-gain readout operation enables to improve the performance, achieving about 43-mm depth uncertainty at 3 m. © 2012 IEEE.
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