A rationally designed small molecule for identifying an in vivo link between metal-amyloid-β complexes and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
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- A rationally designed small molecule for identifying an in vivo link between metal-amyloid-β complexes and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
- Beck, Michael W.; Oh, Shin Bi; Kerr, Richard A.; Lee, Hyuck Jin; Kim, So Hee; Kim, Sujeong; Jang, Milim; Ruotolo, Brandon T.; Lee, Joo-Yong; Lim, Mi Hee
- Issue Date
- ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY
- CHEMICAL SCIENCE, v.6, no.3, pp.1879 - 1886
- Multiple factors, including amyloid-β (Aβ), metals, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), are involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metal ions can interact with Aβ species generating toxic oligomers and ROS in vitro; however, the involvement of metal-Aβ complexes in AD pathology in vivo remains unclear. To solve this uncertainty, we have developed a chemical tool (L2-b) that specifically targets metal-Aβ complexes and modulates their reactivity (i.e., metal-Aβ aggregation, toxic oligomer formation, and ROS production). Through the studies presented herein, we demonstrate that L2-b is able to specifically interact with metal-Aβ complexes over metal-free Aβ analogues, redirect metal-Aβ aggregation into off-pathway, nontoxic less structured Aβ aggregates, and diminish metal-Aβ-induced ROS production, overall mitigating metal-Aβ-triggered toxicity, confirmed by multidisciplinary approaches. L2-b is also verified to enter the brain in vivo with relative metabolic stability. Most importantly, upon treatment of 5XFAD AD mice with L2-b, (i) metal-Aβ complexes are targeted and modulated in the brain; (ii) amyloid pathology is reduced; and (iii) cognition deficits are significantly improved. To the best of our knowledge, by employing an in vivo chemical tool specifically prepared for investigating metal-Aβ complexes, we report for the first time experimental evidence that metal-Aβ complexes are related directly to AD pathogenesis.
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