Alpha-2-Macroglobulin as a New Promising Biomarker Improving the Diagnostic Sensitivity of Bovine Paratuberculosis
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- Alpha-2-Macroglobulin as a New Promising Biomarker Improving the Diagnostic Sensitivity of Bovine Paratuberculosis
- Park, Hyun-Eui; Park, Jin-Sik; Park, Hong-Tae; Choi, Jeong-Gyu; Shin, Jeong-Ih; Jung, Myunghwan; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Kim, Donghyuk; Yoo, Han Sang; Shin, Min-Kyoung
- Issue Date
- FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
- FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, v.8, pp.637716
- Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), which induces persistent diarrhea and cachexia. JD causes huge economic losses to the dairy industry due to reduced milk production and premature culling. Infected animals excrete MAP via feces during the prolonged subclinical stage without exhibiting any clinical signs. Therefore, accurate detection of subclinical stage animals is crucial for successful eradication of JD in the herd. In the current study, we analyzed serum samples of MAP-infected and non-infected cattle to identify potential biomarker candidates. First, we identified 12 differentially expressed serum proteins in subclinical and clinical shedder groups compared to the healthy control group. Second, we conducted ELISA for three selected biomarkers (alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), alpha-1-beta glycoprotein, and transthyretin) and compared their diagnostic performance with that of two commercial ELISA diagnostic kits. Serum A2M levels were significantly higher in the MAP-exposed, subclinical shedder, subclinical non-shedder, and clinical shedder groups than in the healthy control group, suggesting its possible use as a diagnostic biomarker for MAP infection. Furthermore, A2M demonstrated a sensitivity of 90.4%, and a specificity of 100% while the two commercial ELISA kits demonstrated a sensitivity of 67.83 and 73.04% and a specificity of 100%, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that measuring A2M by ELISA can be used as a diagnostic tool to detect MAP infection, considerably improving the detection rate of subclinical shedders and MAP-exposed animals that are undetectable using current diagnostic tools.
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