Latent Heating and Cooling Rates in Developing and Nondeveloping Tropical Disturbances during TCS-08: Radar-Equivalent Retrievals from Mesoscale Numerical Models and ELDORA
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- Latent Heating and Cooling Rates in Developing and Nondeveloping Tropical Disturbances during TCS-08: Radar-Equivalent Retrievals from Mesoscale Numerical Models and ELDORA
- Park, Myung-Sook; Penny, Andrew B.; Elsberry, Russell L.; Billings, Brian J.; Doyle, James D.
- PART I; CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS; MONSOON EXPERIMENT; WESTERN PACIFIC; DEEP CONVECTION; PRECIPITATION; CYCLONES; CYCLOGENESIS; SIMULATIONS; CLOUD
- Issue Date
- AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC
- JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, v.70, no.1, pp.37 - 55
- Latent heating and cooling rates have a critical role in predicting tropical cyclone formation and intensification. In a prior study, Park and Elsberry estimated the latent heating and cooling rates from aircraft Doppler radar [Electra Doppler Radar (ELDORA)] observations for two developing and two nondeveloping tropical disturbances during the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 (TCS-08) field experiment. In this study, equivalent retrievals of heating rates from two mesoscale models with 1-km resolution are calculated with the same radar thermodynamic retrieval. Contoured frequency altitude diagrams and vertical profiles of the net latent heating rates from the model are compared with the ELDORA-retrieved rates in similar cloud-cluster regions relative to the center of circulation. In both the developing and nondeveloping cases, the radar-equivalent retrievals from the two models tend to overestimate heating for less frequently occurring, intense convective cells that contribute to positive vorticity generation and spinup in the lower troposphere. The model maximum cooling rates are consistently smaller in magnitude than the heating maxima for the nondeveloping cases as well as the developing cases. Whereas in the model the cooling rates are predominantly associated with melting processes, the effects of evaporative cooling are underestimated in convective downdraft regions and at upper levels. Because of the net warming of the columns, the models tend to overintensify the lower-tropospheric circulations if these intense convective cells are close to the circulation center. Improvements in the model physical process representations are required to realistically represent the evaporative cooling effects
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