Finite Element Simulation of the Hard Turning Process with Patterned Tool Inserts

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Finite Element Simulation of the Hard Turning Process with Patterned Tool Inserts
Kim, Dong Min
Park, Hyung Wook
FEM; Machining; Hard turning; CBN; Simulation; Pattern; Texture
Issue Date
Graduate School of UNIST
Hard turning is a process for fabricating precise components from hardened steels using diamond-like tool materials such as cubic boron nitride. The main characteristic of hard turning is the dry machining process, which introduces challenges such as high friction and temperature that decrease the production rate. Research has been used to address these issues through approaches such as textured surfaces and textured tools to reduce the friction coefficient. However, the use of the finite element method (FEM) with textured machine tools has not been investigated until now. This study proposes reducing the friction of the tool–chip interface using a textured tool rake surface. The technique was modeled in simulations using the DEFORM software package. The data for the workpiece and tool material for the simulations were based on FEM machining research. The initial results of the simulations were compared to theoretical modeling and experimental data. Four texture patterns were investigated: flat (non-patterned), perpendicular, parallel, and rectangular. In addition, the effects of the edge distance, pitch size, pattern height, and shear friction factors were also considered. Of the four pattern types, the tool with the perpendicular pattern was best at reducing the force. An edge distance of 100 μm also tended to reduce the force. A pitch size of 100 μm and a pattern height of 50 μm produced the lowest force values for a perpendicular pattern. Furthermore, a shear friction factor of 0.6 gave reasonable results for all patterns. The lowest ratios for the cutting force/feed force and the cutting force/thrust force did not occur under conditions that resulted in the lowest force; it was a linear function of the pitch size and friction constants. The effective stress on the workpiece was widely distributed on the chip for the lower cutting forces, and the chip rotated in the direction of the pattern. Furthermore, the flow angle increased proportionally to the cutting force. Overall, the texture pattern had an effect on the force; a tool with a perpendicular texture resulted in the least force. The coefficient of friction was not directly proportional to the force. The different forces affected the effective stress of the workpiece, and the pattern type and size affected the chip flow angle. Future work will address the need for real experiments with textured tools so that experimental and simulated results can be compared. The cutting conditions will be changed by adjusting the cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut.
Mechanical Engineering
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