Cholesterol and metal ions in Alzheimer's disease
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- Cholesterol and metal ions in Alzheimer's disease
- Lee, Hyuck Jin; Korshavn, Kyle J.; Kochi, Akiko; Derrick, Jeffrey S.; Lim, Mi Hee
- AMYLOID-BETA; OXIDATIVE STRESS; NERVOUS-SYSTEM; EGG-YOLK; COPPER; NEURODEGENERATION; ZINC; METABOLISM; BRAIN; CELLS
- Issue Date
- ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY
- CHEMICAL SOCIETY REVIEWS, v.43, no.19, pp.6672 - 6682
- Cholesterol and metal ions have been suggested to be associated with the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, recent findings have demonstrated a potential interconnection between these two factors. For example, (a) cholesterol has been shown to be misregulated in AD-afflicted brains, and the aberrant activity of proteins (particularly, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR)) has been linked to cholesterol-related AD exacerbation; (b) dyshomeostasis of metal ions associated with misfolded proteins (i.e., amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates) found in the brains of AD patients is shown to promote oxidative stress leading to the malfunction of multiple proteins, including cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1); (c) metal ion misregulation has also been observed to disrupt the activity of proteins (e.g., HMGR, low-density lipoproteins (LDL)), required for cholesterol production and regulation. Herein, we briefly discuss the potential involvement of cholesterol and metal ions in AD neuropathogenesis in both individual and interrelated manners.
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