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Author

Lee, Zonghoon
Atomic-Scale Electron Microscopy (ASEM) Lab
Research Interests
  • Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM/STEM), in Situ TEM, graphene, 2D materials, low-dimensional crystals, nanostructured materials

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Tailoring the microstructure and surface morphology of metal thin films for nano-electro-mechanical systems applications

Cited 9 times inthomson ciCited 9 times inthomson ci
Title
Tailoring the microstructure and surface morphology of metal thin films for nano-electro-mechanical systems applications
Author
Luber, E.Mohammadi, R.Ophus, C.Lee, ZonghoonNelson-Fitzpatrick, N.Westra, K.Evoy, S.Dahmen, U.Radmilovic, V.Mitlin, D.
Keywords
ATOMIC-FORCE MICROSCOPY; SILICON; NI; DEPOSITION; GROWTH; CANTILEVERS; NANOINDENTATION; DEFORMATION; STRESS; ALLOYS
Issue Date
200803
Publisher
IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Citation
NANOTECHNOLOGY, v.19, no.12, pp.1 - 7
Abstract
Metallic structural components for micro-electro-mechanical/nano-electro- mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) are promising alternatives to silicon-based materials since they are electrically conductive, optically reflective and ductile. Polycrystalline mono-metallic films typically exhibit low strength and hardness, high surface roughness, and significant residual stress, making them unusable for NEMS. In this study we demonstrate how to overcome these limitations by co-sputtering Ni-Mo. Detailed investigation of the Ni-Mo system using transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals the presence of an amorphous-nanocrystalline microstructure which exhibits enhanced hardness, metallic conductivity, and sub-nanometer root mean square (RMS) roughness. Uncurled NEMS cantilevers with MHz resonant frequencies and quality factors ranging from 200-900 are fabricated from amorphous Ni-Mo. Using a sub-regular solution model it is shown that the electrical conductivity of Ni-Mo is in excellent agreement with Bhatia's structural model of electrical resistivity in binary alloys. Using a Langevin-type stochastic rate equation the structural evolution of amorphous Ni-Mo is modeled; it is shown that the growth instability due to the competing processes of surface diffusion and self-shadowing is heavily damped out due to the high thermal energies of sputtering, resulting in extremely smooth films.
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DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/19/12/125705
ISSN
0957-4484
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