Nuclear redistribution of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein requires proteasome activity
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- Nuclear redistribution of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein requires proteasome activity
- Woo, SK; Maouyo, D; Handler, JS; Kwon, H. Moo
- Hypertonicity-stimulated transcription; Sodium-chloride-betaine cotransporter; Sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter
- Issue Date
- AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC
- AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY, v.278, no.2, pp.C323 - C330
- Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is the transcription factor that regulates tonicity-responsive expression of the genes for the sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the sodium- chloride-betaine cotransporter (BGT1). Hypertonicity stimulates the activity of TonEBP due to a combination of increased protein abundance and increased nuclear distribution (proportion of TonEBP that is in the nucleus). We found that inhibitors of proteasome activity markedly reduce the induction of SMIT and BGT1 mRNA in response to hypertonicity. These inhibitors also reduce hypertonicity-induced stimulation of expression of a reporter gene controlled by the tonicity-responsive enhancer. Western and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the proteasome inhibitors reduce the hypertonicity-induced increase of TonEBP in the nucleus by inhibiting its nuclear redistribution without affecting its abundance. Although the nuclear distribution of TonEBP is sensitive to inhibition of proteasome activity as is that of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, the signaling pathways appear to be different in that hypertonicity does not affect the nuclear distribution of NF-κB. Conversely, treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α increases the nuclear distribution of NF-κB but not TonEBP.
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