The androgenic anabolic steroid tetrahydrogestrinone produces dioxin-like effects via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
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- The androgenic anabolic steroid tetrahydrogestrinone produces dioxin-like effects via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
- Moon, Hyo Youl; Kim, Sun-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill
- Aryl hydrocarbon receptor; Dioxin; Tetrahydrogestrinone
- Issue Date
- PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
- TOXICOLOGY IN VITRO, v.26, no.7, pp.1129 - 1133
- For a long time, athletes have used androgenic anabolic steroids (AASs) in an inappropriate and veiled manner with the aim of improving exercise performance or for cosmetic purposes. Abuse of AASs triggers adverse effects such as hepatocarcinogenesis, heart attacks, and aggressive behavior. However, AAS-induced toxicity is not completely understood at the molecular level. In the present study, we showed, by performing a dioxin response element (DRE)-luciferase reporter gene assay, that tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), a popular and potent androgen receptor agonist, has dioxin-like effects. In addition, we showed that THG increased cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA and protein levels, and enzyme activity. The gene encoding CYP1A1 is involved in phase 1 xenobiotic metabolism and a target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Using the AhR antagonist CH-223191, we also examined whether the effects of THG on DRE activation depended on AhR. Our results suggest that synthetic anabolic steroids may have dioxin-like side effects that can disturb endocrine systems and may cause other side effects including cancer through AhR.
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