Precipitation Revisited: Shape Control of LiFePO4 Nanoparticles by Combinatorial Precipitation
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- Precipitation Revisited: Shape Control of LiFePO4 Nanoparticles by Combinatorial Precipitation
- Lee, Myeong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Hyun-Kon
- Cathode materials; Component systems; Hollow sphere; Intercalation/deintercalation; Intermediate precipitates; Key parameters; LiFePO; Lithium ions; Lithium-ion battery; Nanoplates; Precipitation methods; Precipitation process; Rechargeable battery; Secondary structures; Shape control; Solubility product; Spherical nanoparticles; Three-component system
- Issue Date
- AMER CHEMICAL SOC
- JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, v.115, no.25, pp.12255 - 12259
- Tunable precipitation strategy to control the shape of nanoparticles of a three-component system is presented. The strategy is devised from understanding the effects of precursor addition sequences on the morphology of resultant precipitates. LiFePO4, one of the most potential candidate as a cathode material of lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, was used as a representative model of the three (Li, Fe, and PO4)-component system. According to the precursor addition sequence, three different precipitation methods were adopted: coprecipitation (Copr) and two different types of sequential precipitations (Seq1 and Seq2). Solubility product (K-sp) of intermediate precipitates (Li3PO4 and Fe-3(PO4)(2)) is the key parameter to help the precipitation processes understood. In Copr, the intermediate precipitates are formed simultaneously under K-sp-governed competition. In Seql and Seq2, Li3PO4 precipitates prior to Fe-3(PO4)(2). When Fe2+ is introduced into the suspension of Li3PO4, the preformed precipitate is sacrificed to supply PO43- for Fe-3(PO4)(2) precipitation due to the stronger tendency (smaller value of K-sp) of precipitation of Fe-3(PO4)(2). Also, the interaction between a cationic surfactant and PO43- makes the difference between Seq1 and Seq2. As a conclusion of the effects of precursor sequence, the shape of particles spans from spherical nanoparticles through a hollow sphere secondary structure of the same nanoparticles to nanoplates. Each own morphology developed by different precipitation methods leads to different intercalation/deintercalation behavior of lithium ions in conventional rechargeable battery cells.
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