Clostridium difficile Toxin A Decreases Acetylation of Tubulin, Leading to Microtubule Depolymerization through Activation of Histone Deacetylase 6, and This Mediates Acute Inflammation
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- Clostridium difficile Toxin A Decreases Acetylation of Tubulin, Leading to Microtubule Depolymerization through Activation of Histone Deacetylase 6, and This Mediates Acute Inflammation
- Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Kim, Sung-Kuk; Ahn, Keun Jae; Seok, Heon; Park, Sang Joon; Chang, Jong Soo; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Lamont, John Thomas; Kim, Ho
- Cell rounding; Clostridium difficile; Colonocytes; Deacetylase; Deacetylation; Disaggregation; Epithelial cells; Fractionation analysis; Glucosyltransferases; Histone deacetylases; In-vitro; Microtubules; Post-translational modifications; Proinflammatory cytokines; Rho proteins; Tight junctions; Trichostatin A
- Issue Date
- AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC
- JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, v.285, no.43, pp.32888 - 32896
- Clostridium difficile toxin A is known to cause actin disaggregation through the enzymatic inactivation of intracellular Rho proteins. Based on the rapid and severe cell rounding of toxin A-exposed cells, we speculated that toxin A may be involved in post-translational modification of tubulin, leading to microtubule instability. In the current study, we observed that toxin A strongly reduced alpha-tubulin acetylation in human colonocytes and mouse intestine. Fractionation analysis demonstrated that toxin A-induced alpha-tubulin deacetylation yielded monomeric tubulin, indicating the presence of microtubule depolymerization. Inhibition of the glucosyltransferase activity against Rho proteins of toxin A by UDP-2`,3`-dialdehyde significantly abrogated toxin A-induced alpha-tubulin deacetylation. In colonocytes treated with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of the HDAC6 tubulin deacetylase, toxin A-induced alpha-tubulin deacetylation and loss of tight junction were completely blocked. Administration of TSA also attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production, mucosal damage, and epithelial cell apoptosis in mouse intestine exposed to toxin A. These results suggest that toxin A causes microtubule depolymerization by activation of HDAC6-mediated tubulin deacetylation. Indeed, blockage of HDAC6 by TSA markedly attenuates alpha-tubulin deacetylation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and mucosal damage in a toxin A-induced mouse enteritis model. Tubulin deacetylation is an important component of the intestinal inflammatory cascade following toxin A-mediated Rho inactivation in vitro and in vivo.
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