Three-Year Atmospheric Monitoring of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polar Regions and the South Pacific
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- Three-Year Atmospheric Monitoring of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polar Regions and the South Pacific
- Baek, Song-Yee; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Chang, Yoon-Seok
- Antarctica; Atmospheric monitoring; Atmospheric transport; Local source; Long range transport; Organochlorine pesticides; Passive air sampler; PCB congeners; Polar Regions; Research stations; Sampling period; Sampling site; Temporal trends
- Issue Date
- AMER CHEMICAL SOC
- ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, v.45, no.10, pp.4475 - 4482
- XAD-2 resin based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for three one-year periods at the Korean polar and South Pacific research stations at Ny-Alesund (2005-2009), King George Island (2005-2007), and Chuuk (2006-2009) to investigate long-range transport, local sources, and temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The highest hexachlocyclohexane (HCH) concentration (35.2-78.9 pg.m(-3)) over the entire sampling period was detected at Ny-Alesund, in the Arctic. alpha-HCH was the dominant OCP (31.1-67.1 pg.m(-3)), contributing about 50% of the total OCP load. Additionally, a high and consistent alpha/gamma-HCH ratio was observed at Ny-Alesund. HCHs might reach Arctic sites more easily than other OCPs from surrounding countries through long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Interestingly, high levels of the current-use OCP endosulfan-particularly endosulfan-I-were detected at almost all sampling sites, including in Antarctica, ranging 12.2-88.5, 17.7-130, and ND-59.7 pg.m(-3) at King George Island, Ny-Alesund, and Chuuk respectively. Specific OCP and PCB patterns, such as low trans/cis-chlordane ratios and a prevalence of lighter PCB congeners, were observed in all three regions (excepting one site at Ny-Alesund and one site in the South Pacific affected by local sources) during all sampling periods. This indicates that these Polar and remote South Pacific sites are mainly influenced by LRAT. Over the entire sampling period, a decreasing trend of HCHs (alpha- and gamma-HCH) and an increasing trend of endosulfan-I were observed at the Ny-Alesund sites.
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