Optimization of energy levels by molecular design: evaluation of bis-diketopyrrolopyrrole molecular donor materials for bulk heterojunction solar cells
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- Optimization of energy levels by molecular design: evaluation of bis-diketopyrrolopyrrole molecular donor materials for bulk heterojunction solar cells
- Walker, Bright; Liu, Jianhua; Kim, Chunki; Welch, Gregory C.; Park, Jin Keun; Lin, Jason; Zalar, Peter; Proctor, Christopher M.; Seo, Jung Hwa; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen
- Bulk heterojunction; Bulk heterojunction solar cells; Device fabrications; Diketopyrrolopyrroles; Electrical potential; Electronic levels; Power conversion efficiencies; Solvent additives
- Issue Date
- ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY
- ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, v.6, no.3, pp.952 - 962
- We report a series of solution-processable, small-molecule, donor materials based on an architecture consisting of two diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) cores with different aromatic pi-bridges between the DPP units and different end-capping groups. In general, this architecture leads to desirable light absorption and electronic levels for donor materials. Out of the compounds investigated, a material with a hydrolyzed dithieno(3,2-b;2',3'-d)silole (SDT) core and 2-benzofuran (BFu) end capping groups leads to the most favorable properties for solar cells, capable of generating photocurrent up to 800 nm while producing an open-circuit voltage of over 850 mV, indicating a small loss in electrical potential compared to other bulk heterojunction systems. Device properties can be greatly improved through the use of solvent additives such as 2-chloronaphthalene and initial attempts to optimize device fabrication have resulted in power conversion efficiencies upwards of 4%.
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