Structural insights into hydrogenated graphite prepared from fluorinated graphite through Birch−type reduction
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- Structural insights into hydrogenated graphite prepared from fluorinated graphite through Birch−type reduction
- Zhang, Xu; Goossens, Karel; Li, Wei; Chen, Xianjue; Chen, Xiong; Saxena, Manav; Lee, Sun Hwa; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Ruoff, Rodney S.
- Issue Date
- PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
- CARBON, v.121, no., pp.309 - 321
- Hydrogenated graphite was synthesized through a Birch−type reduction by treating fluorinated graphite ((CFx)n, x ∼ 1.1) with a solution of Li in liquid NH3 followed by the addition of H2O as the proton donor. The conversion was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and powder X−ray diffraction. X−ray photoelectron spectroscopy and combustion elemental analysis were used to determine and quantify the chemical composition, giving an empirical formula of C1H0.60O0.0 6N0.01 for the product with no more than 2 at.% of fluorine atoms remaining. Thermal dehydrogenation of the hydrogenated material – as investigated by thermogravimetric analysis coupled to mass spectrometry – predominately occurs over the range of 350–600 °C. The product was also analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, which collectively supported the formation of hydrogenated graphene sheets through a wet−chemical route. To elucidate the structure of the hydrogenated sample, the material was investigated by solid−state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Direct pulse and cross−polarization nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, including spin counting, spectral editing and 2D heteronuclear correlation experiments, revealed the nature of the sp3− and sp2−hybridized carbon nuclei, and indicated that methine, methylene and quaternary sp3−carbon atoms were present in the hydrogenated material.
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